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  Igor Gouzenko  


Histoire des droits de la personne au Canada - Documents Igor Gouzenko Igor Gouzenko - Photo du SCRS Igor Gouzenko - Page web du Canadian Encyclopedia

Photos provenant des sites suivants (en ordre): www.historyofrights.com  -  www.csis-scrs.gc.ca  -  www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com

Igor Gouzenko est né le 26 janvier 1919 à Rogochov en URSS.

En 1943, Igor Gouzenko se rend à Ottawa dans le rôle de commis aux codes pour l'ambassade soviétique sous la supervision du Colonel Zabotin. Son épouse et lui trouve une nouvelle demeure à l'apartement #4 au 511 rue Somerset ouest. Le soir du 5 septembre 1945, Igor Gouzenko prend la décision de faire défection au Canada tout en apportant avec lui plus de 100 documents comme preuves que les Soviétiques étaient des plus actifs dans l'espionnage sur les Canadiens et Américains. L'URSS fut un proche allié du Canada durant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. Igor Gouzenko pris cette décision tout en amenant avec lui son épouse (enceinte d'un deuxième enfant) ainsi que leur garçon de 2 ans. Malgré qu'initialement la plupart des autorités canadiennes (Police d'Ottawa, l'Ottawa Journal, l'office du ministre de la justice Louis St-Laurent, l'office du Premier Ministre Mackenzie King) qu'il visite le rejette soit parce qu'elles croient qu'il est ivre, qu'il exagère, ou qu'il veut causer des ennuis, il est finalement vu comme crédible par la secrétaire Fernande Coulson dans l'office du Soliciteur Général et, suivant une entrevue qu'elle facilite avec l'inspecteur Leopold du "Anti-Subversive Division" de la GRC, et lui et sa famille sont mis sous isolement protecteur par la GRC - donc débute la Guerre Froide.

Il y a de nombreux sites web dédiés aux détails historiques concernant Igor Gouzenko incluant ce site Wikipedia mais il semblerait y avoir quelques erreurs. Un excellent site à titre de référence est celui-ci du Canada's Human Rights History qui contient plusieurs documents déclassifiés provenant de la Commission d'enquête parlementaire qui culmina en 1946. Il y a une autre excellente page web de la Camp X Historical Society. De plus, voici un autre article intitulé (en anglais) "THE GOUZENKO AFFAIR REVISITED: THE SOVIET PERSPECTIVE" qui peut être consulté.

Voici d'excellents sites avec audio et/ou vidéo dans les archives de Radio-Canada:

Voici d'autres sources d'informations soient sous format audio et/ou vidéo dans les archives de la CBC (chaîne anglaise de la SRC):

De plus, voici d'autres sites web à noter:

Dans l'édition du 10 juillet 2012 du Ottawa Citizen, il parut cet article en anglais intitulé "Our Igor" par Wesley Wark - une lecture vastement intéressante.

De plus, un récent article intitulé "Growing up Gouzenko" sur Evelyn Wilson (fille d'Igor et Svetlana Gouzenko) parut l'édition du 15 mars 2013 du journal canadien Ottawa Citizen. De plus, Evy Wilson accorda cette entrevue à la radio CBC intitulée "Igor Gouzenko's Daughter Speaks Out" sur les ondes le 14 octobre 2002.

Dans la poursuite d'une recherche plus approndie sur Igor Gouzenko, j'ai fait la lecture d'une grande variété de comptes-rendus à l'égard des valeurs et de l'éthique de cet homme au fil de sa vie. Il paraîtrait que ses intentions et objectifs étaient honorables particulièrement qu'il a) valorisait et désirait adopter la vie canadienne et b) méprisait hautement le système communiste qui était très contraignant et règlementé et qui maintenant était impliqué dans des activités d'espionnage des plus vigoureuses notamment dans la recherche nucléaire et son développement dans l'ouest. Par contre, autant que lui et son épouse étaient attirés à la vie canadienne, les répercussions et implications dans des actions qui déclancheraients la Guerre Froide (par ex. l'isolement de leur famille au Camp X) furent telles que leur aspirations à cette vie canadienne seraient impossibles à atteindre - les immigrants soviétiques de cette époque auraient eut une plus grande opportunité à s'adapter (mais pas sans défis quand même!). Notre pays qu'est le Canada a toujours été vu en termes positifs à travers le monde et de façon croissante dans la dernière centaine d'années; par contre, nous les Canadiens ne sommes pas tout à fait dépourvus de préjudice et autres fautes. Si nous pouvions demander à Igor Gouzenko en 1945 avant qu'il fasse défection s'il choisirait la fanfare ou l'option d'un programme tel que celui de la "protection et réinstallation des témoins" où lui et sa famille pourrait entamer un tout nouveau départ dans l'obscurité quelque part au Canada (comme les immigrants par ex.), je crois qu'il aurait choisit la dernière option tout en livrant les preuves d'espionnage soviétique au Canada, aux Etats-Unis et en Grande-Bretagne - c'est-à-dire une intégration au sein du Canada avec aucune attention particulière leur étant accordée tout en laissant les autorités s'occupper de déraciner le réseau d'espionnage soviétique. Tout de même s'il y aurait eu un tel "programme de protection et de relocalisation", il aurait sans doute été un travail facile pour les soviétiques de retrouver la famille Gouzenko et de règler les comptes. Igor Gouzenko a donc été refaçonné par des circonstances complexes telles que l'isolement, notre système politique et moeurs sociales et culturelles (leurs points forts et points faibles), et par ceux qui avaient contrôle et/ou influence sur lui et le bien-être de sa famille, leur sécurité et leurs entreprises personnelles. A travers tout ça, il semblerait que la famille Gouzenko demeura solidaire tout en supportant l'un et l'autre.




Sketch de la page 91 de l'article Coronet (dans la table ici-bas)



  Des mains d'Igor Gouzenko et Svetlana Gouzenko  


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Description
Commentaires / Questions
Forbidden Beach
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Source: Collection personnelle
Peinture à l'huile intitulée "Forbidden Beach" par Igor Gouzenko lors de son séjour avec sa famille au Camp X - datée 1946. J'ai acquis cette peinture durant l'été de 2009 d'un individu en Colombie-Britannique qui l'avait en sa possession pour plusieurs années. Cette peinture n'était pas dans les meilleures des conditions et je l'ai fait restaurée par une experte dans ce domaine ici dans la région d'Ottawa. J'espère trouver plus d'infos concernant cette peinture dans le futur. Il est intéressant à noter que la signification du titre "Forbidden Beach" ("Plage Interdite" en français) reflétait jusqu'à quel point la vie avait changée pour Igor Gouzenko et sa famille après sa défection.
The Iron Curtain
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"The Iron Curtain" (279 pages) publié par Dutton - 1948.
A l'endos de la couverture, nous retrouvons ce texte (en anglais):

"A smashing exposé and dramatic autobiography, The Iron Curtain is the story of a Soviet cipher expert who discovered the free world and blasted wide open Stalin's atomic spy ring in the nation he was sent to destroy."

"Igor Gouzenko, son of a Russian schoolmistress of peasant stock, rose in the Communist Party through his intelligence, to become head cipher clerk at the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa. In 1946 his daring exposure laid bare the Soviet spy ring to the eyes of a shocked world when he fled to the Canadian authorities with incontrovertible proof against the Canadian betrayers."

"In the The Iron Curtain Gouzenko reveals the scope and insidiousness of the hostile network of spies and subversives radiating from this Soviet Embassy. His work placed him close to the center of the espionage web, and across his desk passed a stream of correspondence between Moscow and Ottawa, and between the Soviet Embassy and Canadian Communists adn fellow-travelers acting as its agents."

"At great risk to himself and his family, Gouzenko selected and smuggled out a mass of evidence. This resulted in the conviction and imprisonment of a number of Canadian in high places."

"In the The Iron Curtain Gouzenko pictures in detail the hunger, the poverty, the corroding fear that govern the daily lives of millions of Russians. He brings out the extreme difficulty of trying to reach the Russian people with the truth. Their indoctrination has been so constant from birth that even he, with his superior opportunities, until he came to Canada could not possibly believe in a country where workmen had enough to eat three times a day, had more than one pair of shoes, had cars of their own."

"The Iron Curtain is important, too because of the light it sheds on Soviet propaganda, both domestic and foreign. Gouzenko shows how the rulers of the Kremlin must keep the U.S.S.R. sealed off from the outside world in order to win gullible foreign sympathizers with the mirage of a mythical Never-Never Land."

"Igor Gouzenko's disclosures have been revealed in the motion picture The Iron Curtain, released by Twentieth Century-Fox, starring Dana Andrews and Gene Tierney."


This Was My Choice
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"This Was My Choice - Gouzenko's Story" (323 pages) publié par Dent - 1948.
A l'endos de la couverture, nous retrouvons ce texte (en anglais):

"You may say or write what you like about this book and its author. As publishers we rejoice that this is so. "It is one of the most cherished rights of free citizens in a democracy."

"The author, Igor Gouzenko, who was born and grew up under the Soviet regime in Russia, never knew that it was possible for anyone to speak and write as he wished until he came to Canada. As a cipher clerk in the Russian Embassy in Ottawa, from 1943 to 1945, he observed with amazement the freedom of speech enjoyed by Canadians. But this was ony one of the first and most impressive aspects of democratic life to astonish him."

"Contact with our free way of life eventually caused Gouzenko to risk his life in order to warn the Canadian people of the jeopardy in which their freedom stood because of the activities of Soviet espionage agents in Canada."

"If the Canadian way of life astonished Mr. Gouzenko, Canadians in their turn will be amazed by his picture of life in Soviet Russia. From his own experience the author describes living and working conditions as they exist for the ordinary citizen under the Soviet system. He also describes the organization, techniques and scope of Soviet Intelligence throughout the world, with special emphasis on its activities and successes in Canada during the late war."

"In telling his own personal story, Igor Gouzenko presents an absorbing and often touching narrative which reaches its climax in his account of those tense hours through which he lived after making his escape from the Soviet Embassy and before he was given the protection of the Canadian authorities."


The Fall of a Titan
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"The Fall of a Titan" (629 pages) publié par Norton - 1954.
A l'endos de la couverture arrière, nous retrouvons ce texte (en anglais):

"Although he has been constantly described as a cipher clerk, which of course he was, the fact has been lost sight of that he was a highly educated man with a wide knowledge of history and literature, and a serious student of world affairs". So reported The New York Times after an interview with Igor Gouzenko.

It was his widowed mother, a school teacher, who instilled in Igor his love for learning, as his grandmother, who took care of him until he was six, instilled in him his love for the storyteller's art. Because of his brilliant scholastic record, Igor was enabled to study art and architecture at the Moscow Architectural Institute.

He was twenty-two, in his third year at the Institute, when Russia entered the war in 1941. Again because of his excellent marks, he was sent to the Military Intelligence Academy in Moscow, was graduated with the rank of lieutenant, and was sent in 1943 to Canada as code clerk in the Soviet Embassy.

He met his wife Svetlana Gousev, the daughter of a civil engineer, when they both were students at the Architectural Institute. They have two children, both Canadian-born. When they made their famous break from the Soviets in 1945, Mr. Gouzenko took with him 109 secret documents. These papers, which broke a spy ring operating in Canada, Great Britain, and the United States, remain the only important documentary evidence of their sort ever secured. For the past nine years the Gouzenkos have been living under assumed names under the protection of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Although he wrote short stories in his youth,
"The Fall of a Titan" is Mr. Gouzenko's first novel. It took him four years to write, and he is already at work on another novel.

The Fall of a Titan - Gouzenko Inscription
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"The Fall of a Titan" - Avec inscription d'Igor Gouzenko- 1954.
Ce livre intitulé "The Fall of a Titan" est un peu spécial car il a une inscription signée de la main d'Igor Gouzenko qui est la suivante:

"To Tania Long,

Wonderful woman and reporter to whom I will be always grateful. You were the first one who noticed in me more than "cipher clerk", and said so publicly. It was extremely important to me and my family, and we will never forget your forethought and kindness.

On behalf of my family, and myself, sincerely,

Igor Gouzenko (dated June 15th, 1954)."


La Chute d'un Titan
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"La Chute d'un Titan" (453 pages) - 1955.
Publié par PLON. A l'endos, nous y retrouvons:

Igor Gouzenko s'enfuit, le 6 septembre 1945, de l'ambassade des Soviets à Ottawa, où il était chargé du service du chiffre et choisit la liberté. Il emportait avec lui de précieux documents qui révélèrent aux autorités canadiennes l'existence d'un vaste réseau d'agents secrets au service du Kremlin. Le geste de Gouzenko entraîna l'arrestation du docteur Fuchs et des époux Rosenberg, pour ne citer que les plus connus.

Protégé par la police canadienne et vivant dans l'anonymat, Igor Gouzenko est devenu écrivain. Son ouvrage La Chute d'un Titan est l'un des best-sellers dans les pays anglo-saxons. De nombreux personnages s'affrontent dans cette vaste fresque où l'auteur nous fait passer du Kremlin à l'Université, de la vie de professeur à la vie d'ouvrier. Le personnage central est Mickaïl Gorine, un grand écrivain. Entre lui et le professeur Fiodor Novikov se joue un drame poignant. Gorine, Le "Titan" des lettres russes, est sur la fin de sa vie ; il éprouve des doutes et cette attitude inquiète les membres du Politburo. Novikov est chargé de remettre l'écrivain vieillissant dans le droit chemin. Les péripéties de ce duel à mort sont contées avec une violence de ton et une justesse d'observation qui saisissent dès les premières pages.

On devine que Mikhaïl Gorine, c'est Maxime Gorki. Romancé, il n'en demeure pas moins très semblable au vrai Gorki et l'évocation de cette grande figure et des circonstances qui entourèrent sa mort fait qu'on ne sait au juste où s'arrête la réalité, où commence la fiction.


La Chute d'un Titan
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"Der Sturz Des Titanen" by Igor Gusenko (531 pages) - 1955.
Publié par Verlag Heinrich Scheffler. A l'endos de la couverture, nous avons le texte suivant (en anglais):

Am 5. September 1945 schnitt ein Chiffrierbeamter der Sowjetbotschaft von Ottawa jede Verbindung zwischen sich und seinem Lande ab, während er 102 Geheimdokumente aus der Botschaft herausschmuggelte. Sie enthüllten alle Verzweigungen des kommunistischen Atomspionage-Ringes. Damals lebten Kanada und die ganze westliche Welt noch in der Illusion der Sowjet-Waffenbrüderschaft. Der lästige Überläufer wurde zunächst nicht mit offenen Armen aufgenommen, und es drohte ihm die Auslieferung an den NKWD seiner Botschaft. In einem dramatischen Wettlauf mit dem Tode gelang ihm schlißlich doch der Nachweis der Echtheit dieser Dokumente. Seine bewahrte ihn vor dem Äußersten, und Guzenko fand ein neues Vaterland. Unter falschem Namen lebt er mit seiner Familie in einer kanadischen Stadt.

In der Abgesschlossenheit dieses Lebens begann Igor Gusenko dor fünf Jahren mit der Niederschrift eines umfangreichen Romanes, der das Leben in Sowjetrußland zeigen sollte, wie wirklich ist.

Der Roman erschien im Juli 1954 in englischer Sprache und wurde sogleich begeistert aufgenommen. Seit dem Erscheinen wurden in den Vereinigten Staaten und dem britischen Empire weit mehr als 100 000 Examplare von diesem Roman verkauft, mehr als dreißig Wochen lang stand er an führender Stele der »Best-seller-List«, und bald erwarben Verleger in fast allen Kulturstaaten die Übersetzungsrechte.

Im Mai 1955 erhielt Gusenko den höchsten kanadischen Literaturpreis für sein Werk.

Das ganze Leben des Verfassers Igor Gusenko in der Sowjetunion liegt hinter diesem ROman. Die Erzählung beginnt in den blutigsten Tagen der Revolution. Die Rote Armee dringt in Rostow am Don ein, beschlagnahmt Eigentum, dämmt die Flut der Fliehenden und zwingt sie zur Arbeit und zum Kampf für die Revolution. Unter diesen Menschen befindet sich auch ein junger Bursche, Fjodor Nowiko, der gezwungen wird, für die seiner Familie feindliche neue Macht zu arbeiten und zu kämpfen. Er wird nach dem Tod seines Vaters in den Bürgerkrieg hineingezogen, um an dessen Ende als Vertrauensmann der Tscheka die Erlaubnis zum Studium zu erhalten. Aber niemals wird der Geheimdienst ihn freigeben: Nowikow macht Karriere durch eine Arbeit über die alten Slawen und wird Professor. Ein plötzlicher Besucher aus Moskau versieht ihn bald darauf mit einer Sonderaufgabe.


La Cortina De Hierro
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"La Cortina de Hierro - La Historia de Gouzenko" - Aucune date, environ 1948.
Nous avons le texte suivant à l'endos de la couverture:

Titulo original de esta obra: "This was my Choice".

Puede el lector decir o escribir lo que le plazca respecto de este libro y de su autor. Como editores nos alegramos de ello porque al harcerlo ejercita uno de los más caros derechos inherentes a todo libre ciudadano que habita en una democracia.

El autor, Igor Gouzenko, que nació y se educó en Rusia bajo el régimen soviético, jamás creyó que fuera posible hablar y escribir según sus propios deseos, antes de arribar a Canadá. Descifrador de claves en la Embajada rusa en Ottawa desde 1943 hasta 1945, comprobó asombrado la libertad de expresión de que gozan los canadienses. Pero ello fué tan sólo uno de los primeros y más impresionantes aspectos de la vida democrática que llamaron su atención.

Su posterior contacto con nuestra libre manera de vivir, lo impulsó a arriesgar su vida para prevenir al pueblo canadiense respecto del gran peligro que corrían sus libertades, a causa de las actividades de los espias soviéticos en Canadá.

Las normas de vida de los canadienses impresionaron a Mr. Gouzenko, pero aquéllos, a su vez, se asombraron al conocer su pintura de la vida rusa.

Valiéndose de su propia experiencia describe el autor las condiciones de vida y trabajo imperantes en la Rusa soviética, así como también la técnica y alcance del Servicio de Inteligencia ruso en todo el mundo. Sobre todo recalca en esete libro las actividades y los éxitos obtenidos por aquél en Canadá durante la última guerra.

Al narrar su propia historia presenta Igor Gouzenko un atractivo y, por momentos, conmovedor relato que llega a su puonto culminante en las tensas páginas en que describe los episodios de que fué protagonista, luego de huir de la Embajada soviética y antes de lograr la protección de las autoridades canadienses.


La Cortina De Hierro
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"La Cortina de Hierro" Igor Gouzenko - Aucune date, environ 1948.
Nous avons le texte suivant à l'endos de la couverture:

Titulo original de esta obra: "This was my Choice".

Introduccion - de la edicion original canadiense.

Mientras este prefacio va adquiriendo forma, un hombre, junto con su familia, vive constante y estrechamente vigilado por una guardia de la Real Policia Montada canadiense. Sólo unos pocos altos funcionarios gubernamentales y oficiales de policia saben qué punto del mapa canadiense representa su casa. Vive bajo un nombre supuesto y, tal vez, disfrazdo. Estrictas medidas de seguridad prohiben la reproducción de su fotografia, sus detalles personales o cualquier indicio vinculado con el sitio en que se halla. A als entrevistas relacionadas con la edición de este libro concurrió bajo escolta policial a diferentes sitios de distintas ciudades.

El hombre se llama Igor Gouzenko y se halla hoy enteramente protegido por la ley canadiense. Es un súbdito británico al cual escuda el sólido sistema de seguridad de un pais libre, que garantiza su tranquilidad y la de los suyos.

Dentro de tan extraordinarias precauciones se halla en juego algo más que la mera protección de Igor Gouzenko. Necesario será recalcar, hasta que no quede un solo ciudadano en un pais libre sin comprenderlo, que tales medidas nos han sido impuestas por el descarado y mortal desafio que el reino del terror, del temor y de la negación de libertad y la conciencia individuales y de los derechos y privilegios humanos, ha lanzado a los hombres libres de todo el mundo.

La horripilante serie de hechos constituida por las purgas, los campos de concentración, las ejecuciones en masa y las torturas individuales fué escrita, por primevera vez, con la sangre del propio pueblo ruso, de la misma manera que Hitler sació primero su diabólico anhelo de poder con los cuerpos deshchos y los ensangrentados cadáveres del pueblo alemán.


La Caida de un Titan
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"La Caida de un Titan" Igor Gouzenko - 1956.
Nous avons le texte suivant à l'endos de la couverture:

Igor Gouzenko nació durante el torbellino de la Rusia post-revolucionaria, un año después de haber muerto su hermano de inaninción. Fué educado en el Estado soviético. Durante veinticinco años se vió imbuído por la doctrina comunista... y vió el resultado en los sufrimientos humanos. Hijo de un maestro de escuela de ascendencia campesina, se convirtivió, después de años de duro estudio, en un oficial de confianza del Servicio Secreto soviético.

La vida entera de Igor Gouzenko en la Unión soviética se nos revela enteramente en esta novela tan impresionante. La cludad de Rostovon-Don, en la cual se sitúa la acción, es la cludad en la que vivió Gouzenko. La gente cuyas vidas llenana estas páginas, son seres vivientes, que vivieron, amaron y temieron bajo el ojo todopoderoso del Kremlin.

Pero entre todas las mujeres y los hombres que nos son relatados aquí, dos sobresalen entre los demás: el idealista Gorin, estrechamente ligado a Máximo Gorki, cuyos primeros escritos inspiraren a los revolucionarios... el amigo de Lenin que asistió al crecimiento del poder de Stalin desde el extranjero y regresó luego a Rusia para enfrentarse con la realidad y donde encontró que sus fervientes creencias eran destruídas por una tiranía brutal; y Novikov, el oportunista, obligado en su juventud a unirse a los revolucinarios en contra de su propia clase social educándose, paso a paso, en aquella brutalidad sin la cual no es posible confiar en escalar una posición destacada en la jungla de la política del Partido. Este estudio del nuevo hombre soviético es genial, es verídico, su horror se hace evidente a todos. Es él, quien por órdenes recibidas del NKVD, y por recibir en compensación un ascenso, ha de devolver a Gorin al ambiente ideológico. Y la misión de Nivikov es el tema en que se basa esta novela; su camino, mientras Novikov se abre paso en la confianza de Gorin, es de una tensión tan inmensa, que su única rotura puede significar la muerte.

Pero el tema de este libro es muy amplio Es una imagen completa de la vida en la Rusia soviética, de sus caracteres que nos revelan todas las facetas bajo la mano dura del Estado soviético, hombres y mujeres de carne y hueso, hombres y mujeres al igual que nosotros que viven en condiciones que hicieron que Gouzenko, cuando vislumbró la vida libre en el Canadá, arriesgara todo lo que poseía, para escoger la libertad. Gouzenko vive ahora oculto bajo la protección del Gobierno canadiense en el Canadá. Este cuadro an humano de la vida en que nació, de todos aquellos que están sometidos al comunismo, dejará una memoria imborrable en la mente de todos aquellos que lean este libro.


Before Igor
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"Before Igor - Memories of my Soviet Youth" - 1960.
Ecrit par Svetlana Gouzenko, ce livre de 252 pages a une inscripton signée par son auteur. Cette inscription est la suivante: "To Allen Spraggett, creator of my favourite radio-programme, wish you all the luck Jupiter can give you - Svetlana Gouzenko, 31/1 - 1974."

L'endos de la jaquette a le texte suivant:

Svetlana Gouzenko was born in the Soviet Union soon after the Revolution. She grew up in the stormy early years of terror and want, but they were also years of youthful excitement and adventure. With fear and political intrigue not far in the background, she and her family lived colorful, dramatic lives. With warmth and a natural give for narrative, she tells the story of her delightful family, their laughter, their love and their struggle to survive in a turbulent land.

Svetlana, daughter of an engineer, and on her mother's side descended from the Polish patriot Kosciusko, spent most of her childhood in Moscow. But with her family she traveled to the remote corners of Russia - Turkestan, Siberia, Crimea, and the Arctic ports Archangel and Murmansk. She paints a vivid picture of her homeland and describes with humor and nostalgia her own adventures - the trip through a Siberian blizzard when the sleighs were guided to shelter by the smell of borscht, her meeting with Stalin's strong-willed daughter, her encounter with a fiery mountaineer who wanted her for a bride. Full of color and contrast, of gaiety and tragedy, her story is a reminder of the tenacity of the human heart.

Although Mrs. Gouzenko ends her book with her first meeting with Igor Gouzenko, she has led an eventful life since. During the war she left the Moscow Institute of Architecture to work on the front lines in a labor brigade and for a time trained as a fighter pilot. In 1942 she married Igor and in 1943 they were sent to Canada to work in the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa. Two years later, they made their dramatic flight from the Embassy, taking with them the documents that revealed an international network of Soviet espionage. The spotlight once again focused on the Gouzenkos when Igor wrote The Fall of a Titan, a novel of Soviet life that received worldwide acclaim. With their two children, the Gouzenkos live in seclusion under the protection of the Canadian government. Mrs. Gouzenko is already planning a continuation of her memoirs, while her husband is at work on his second novel.


Stalin Sent Me to Spy School
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"Stalin Sent Me to Spy School" - Mars 1953.
Cet article de 8 pages (par Igor Gouzenko tel qu'énoncé à Anne Fromer) parut dans le magazine Coronet en mars 1953. L'avant-propos est le suivant:

"Late one night in the code room of Soviet spy headquarters for North America, Igor Gouzenko put a carefully prepared plan into action. He slipped 109 secret documents into the lining of his coat. Then he walked out of the building - the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa - for the last time.

Why did Gouzenko voluntarily change his allegiance to democracy? What single incident convinced him that the Soviet cause he was serving was false?

In this article, are the answers. Here, for the first time, Igor Gouzenko tells the story of one of the most sinister adventures of our time" - The Editors.

Voici un scan de toutes les pages de l'article en question:

Omnibook - The Iron Curtain
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Article intitulé "The Iron Curtain" dans l'édition de septembre 1948 de la publication Omnibook.
Cet article de 20 pages (abrègé par Igor Gouzenko de son livre du même titre) dans la publication Omnibook. Voici une partie (en anglais) de l'avant-propos de cet article par les éditeurs:

"When a howling mob of Red sympathizers swirled around the movie palace where Igor Gouzenko's Communist spy revelations in "The Iron Curtain" were being premiered, it became glaringly apparent that the former Embassy code clerk had probed a highly sensitive nerve by his exposé of Moscow's subversive attacks on Western civilization. The louder the pickets cried the more obvious it became that the movie based on Igor Gouzenko's life really had something to say. And now The Iron Curtain, containing much of the movie's material and more, is published as an authoritative printed account of one of the most startling spy stories of modern times."

"The Iron Curtain tells how Igor Gouzenko, cipher clerk of the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, Canada, risked his life and the safety of his family to reveal the attempts of the U.S.S.R. and its Canadian accomplices to gain vital atomic bomb secrets, even before Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed."

"Finally in the fall of 1945, the young Russian took his life in his hands by smuggling from his files key documents which later convicted a number of Canadians of sying for Russia and ripped a hole in the iron curtain hiding Soviet fifth-column activities from the eyes of the democratic peoples of the world. Gouzenko spent frantic hours trying to get the incriminating papers into the hands of the proper authorities, while Soviet secret service men besieged his apartment and finally forced their way in in a desperate effort to recover the papers. His disclosure of the world-wide ramifications of Soviet espionage did much to shock Americans out a complacent attitude toward our supposed sole possession of the atom bomb."


Pour cet article, les éditeurs ont aussi ajouté:

About Igor Gouzenko: Born in Rogachov near Moscow in 1919, Igor Gouzenko grew up under Soviet rule. He became a Communist Party member during World War II. On coming to the Canadian Embassy in 1943, he looked with wonder on the privileges and comforts of the common working man, and these things led his disillusionment with the Soviet way of life. After turning over evidence to the Canadian authorities which convicted a number of Canadian citizens, Mr. Gouzenko and his family were placed under the protection of the Canadian police. Right now their identity and whereabouts are carefully concealed, and all that is known is that the Gouzenkos are living "somewhere in Canada".

Voici un scan des deux premières pages de l'article article en question.





  Références sur Igor Gouzenko  


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Commentaires / Questions
How the Cold War Began
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"How the Cold War Began" (258 pages) - 2005.
Ecrit par Amy Knight et publié par McClelland & Stewart, certaines portions de ce livre peuvent être affichées en-ligne au ce lien "Google Books". A l'intérieur de la jaquette, nous retrouvons le texte suivant des éditeurs:

"Just weeks after the Second World War ended, a young Russian cipher clerk named Igor Gouzenko walked out of the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa with secret papers stuffed under his shirt and headed straight for the offices of a city newspaper. His unprecedented action would change the course of the twentieth century."

"Gouzenko's defection sent shock waves far beyond the Canadian capital and launched an international witch-hunt for spies. The documents he smuggled out with him that day suggested Soviet agents - among them leading British nuclear scientist Alan Nunn May - were stealing atomic secrets from the West. In Washington, FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover seized upon the news. All he had needed to demonize the Soviets and discredit White House liberals was evidence of Soviet spying, and Gouzenko delivered the goods. The FBI and the House Un-American Activities Committee were soon using Gouzenko's revelations to hound Alger Hiss, Harry Dexter White, and many others. And all the while in London, double-agent Kim Philby was keeping his Soviet masters in Moscow apprised of every new development in the extraordinary affair. The Cold War had truly begun."

"Using newly declassified intelligence files and interviews with several of the key players, Amy Knight examines the substance of Gouzenko's revelations and delves into his hidden motives for defecting. She explains how Gouzenko, the RCMP who protected him and interrogated suspects for weeks without laying charges, and Prime Minister Mackenzie King's government were really pawns in a much larger game. And she brilliantly connects these events to the hardening of political relations between Moscow and the capitals of the West, the practice of guilt by association, and the end of the movement for international control of the atomic bomb."


Gisel contre Gelda
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"Gisel contre Gelda - Deux armes secrètes en lutte pour la prochaine guerre" (233 pages) - 1948.
Ecrit par Arthur Frontenac par les Editions Internationales. Voici un extrait qui détaille une rédaction d'Igor Gouzenko fait le 10 octobre 1945:

"Je sousigné Igor Gouzenko, ai décidé, de mon propre chef, de faire la déclaration suivante:

Arrivé au Canada voici deux ans, je fus surpris dès le début de mon séjour, de sa liberté individuelle absolue qui règne au Canada, alors qu'elle est inconnue en Russie.

La fausse image des pays démocratiques, qu'on se forge en Russie, d'apris une propagande de plus en plus diffusée, céda jour après jour devant les faits auxquels nulle propagande mensongère ne résiste.

En deux années de résidence au Canada, je pus voir ce dont est capable un peuple libre. Ce que les Canadiens ont accompli et continuent à accomplir ici dans les conditions de liberté absolue, le peuple Russe, sous le régime soviétique de violence et de suppression de toute liberté, ne peut y parvenir, même au prix de son sang, de ses larmes, et de ses sacrifices surhumains.

Les dernières élections qui ont eu lieu récemment au Canada m'ont particulièrement étonné. Par comparaison, le système electoral russe apparaît comme une caricature de la notion d'élections libres. Par exemple, dans les scrutins de l'Union Soviétique, on ne présente qu'un seul candidat, en sorte que toute possibilité de choix est exclue. Ce fait seul est suffisamment éloquent.

Tout en répandant une fausse image des conditions de vie en pays démocratique, le gouvernement soviétique met tout en oeuvre pour empêcher les habitants de ces pays d'être renseignés sur les conditions de la vie en Russie. Les faits relatifs à la suppression brutale de la liberté de la parole, ou à la dérision des sentimenes religieux sincères des gens, ne peuvent être connus dans les pays démocratiques.

Ayant imposé au peuple son régime communiste, le gouvernement de l'Union Soviétique prétend que le peuple Russe possède une notion particulière de la liberté et de la démocratie, différente de celle qui prévaut chez les gens des démocraties occidentales. C'est un mensonge. Le peuple russe a de la liberté la même notion que les autres peuples du mone. Mais le peuple russe ne peut réaliser son rêve de liberté et de gouvernement démocratique, par suite de la terreur et de la persécution la plus cruelle.

Tout en paradant aux conférences internationales et en se répandant en propos abondant sur la paix et la sécurité, le gouvernement soviétique dans le même temps se prépare secrètement à une troisième guerre mondiale. Pour y faire face, le gouvernement soviétique organise dans les pays démocratiques, y compris le Canada, une cinquième colonne à la création de laquelle participent jusqu'aux représentants diplomatiques du gouvernement soviétique.

L'annonce de la dissolution du Komintern fut probablement la plus grose farce des communistes dans les années récentes. Seul le nom disparut, aux fins de rassurer l'opinion publique des pays démocratiques. Le Komintern existe toujours et poursuit son oeuvre. Les chefs soviétiques n'ont jamais renoncé à l'idée d'établir une dictature communiste sur le monde entier.

Le fait que cette aventure coûtera des millions de vies russes est ce qui préoccupe le moins les communistes. Ils s'emploient à inspirer au peuple russe de la haine pour tout ce qui est étranger.

Aux yeux de nombreux citoyens soviétiques envoyés ici à l'étranger, il apparaît clairement que dans les pays démocratiques les Partis Communistes se sont depuis longtemps transformés de partis politiques en réseaux d'espionnage au bénéfice du gouvernement soviétique, en cinquièmes colonnes prêtes à la guerre dans ces pays, en instruments dociles aux mains des Soviets pour créer une agitation artificielle, faire de la provocation, etc... etc... Par le truchement des multiples agitateurs du parti, le gouvernement soviétique excite le peuple russe contre les populations des pays démocratiques de toutes les façons possibles, préparant ainsi le terrain pour la troisième guerre mondiale.

Durant mon séjour au Canada, j'ai pu voir comment le peuple canadien et son gouvernement, dans un désir sincère de venir en aide au peuple russe, a envoyé du ravitaillement à l'Union Soviétique, collecté de l'argent pour le bien-être du peuple russe, et sacrifié la vie de ses fils dans le transport de ce ravitaillement au-delà des océans Au lieu de se montrer reconnaissant de l'aide apportée, le gouvernement soviétique développe au Canada dans le dos - tout cela hors de la connaissance du peuple russe.

Convaincu que cette politique de double-jeu du gouvernement soviétique à l'égard des pays démocratiques n'est pas conforme aux intérêts du peuple russe et met en danger la sécurité de la civilisation, j'ai décidé de briser tout lien avec le régime des Soviets, et de publier ouvertement ma décision.

Je suis heureux d'avoir pu trouver en moi assez de force pour sauter ce pas et pour prévenir le Canada et les autres pays démocratiques du danger qui est suspendu sur eux."

--- Signé : Gouzenko.


De plus nous y retrouvons les noms de codes suivants:
  • "Gisel" - Service de Renseignements du Deuxième Bureau Soviétique
  • "Grant" - Colonel Zabotin, Attaché militaire soviétique à Ottawa
  • "Lesovia" - Nom de code pour le Canada

Report of the Royal Commission  Report of the Royal Commission
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"The Report of the Royal Commission - The Gouzenko Case" (733 pages) - 5 février 1946. Edition spéciale (avec couverture rigide) pour les intentions du Dr. James T. Daniels.
Report of the Royal Commission
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"The Report of the Royal Commission" (733 pages)- 27 juin 1946.
Edition à couverture rigide (copie Campbell Haig). Voici un scan de la première page avec table de matières. Nous reproduisons une portion du texte de la Section II sur la page 11 (en anglais):

Igor Gouzenko
It was Igor Gouzenko who revealed the existence in Canada of a widespread conspiracy to obtain secret official information.

Gouzenko, who had been sent to Canada in June, 1943, with the official title of "civilian employee" of the Soviet Embassy at Ottawa, was the cipher clerk on the staff of the Military Attaché, Colonel Zabotin.

On the night of September 5th, 1945, Gouzenko left the Embassy with a certain number of documents from his own office, including telegrams sent to Moscow, others received from Moscow, which he had enciphered and deciphered, as well as other documents made either by Russian officials of the Embassy or by other persons living in Canada. After having gone through the experiences detailed in Sectin X of this Report, Gouzenko eventually told his story to the R.C.M.P., who reported to the Canadian Government.

He has undoubtedly been a most informative witness and has revealed to us the existence of a conspirational organization operating in Canada and other countries. he has not told us the names and cover names of the organizers, the names of many of the Canadians who were caught "in the net" (to employ the phrase used by the documents) and who acted here as agents, but he has also exposed much of the set-up of the organization as well as its aims and methods here and abroad.

There can be no doubt in our minds that these attempts, very often successful, to obtain here secret and confidential information cannot be qualified as casual or isolated. They are merely the acts of overzealous Soviet employees anxious to inform their own Government. The set-up of this organization in Canada is the result of a long preparation by trained and experienced men, who have come here for the express purpose of carrying on spying activities, and who have employed all the resources at their disposal, with or without corruption, to fulfill the tasks assigned to them.

Some of these men have undoubtedly been well-schooled in espionage and Fifth Column organizational methods, and in political and psychological "development" techniques.

Gouzenko himself came to Ottawa only after he had been through the training that his superiors thought essential for the work he was chosen to perform. At 16 he was a member of the Komsomol or "Young Communist League", which is a youth movement controlled by, and preparatory to membership in, the Communist Party. He was instructed first in coding and decoding in a secret school after having been investigated by the N.K.V.D., which is the official secret political police of the Soviet Union , access to secret cipher work. He was later transferred to the Main Intelligence Division of the Red Army in Moscow, where he spent one year. During that year he saw, in the course of his work, a large number of telegrams to and from many countries, detailing operations there similar to those which he has disclosed in Canada. Finally, after further investigation, Gouzenko was sent to Canada.

Secrecy
Gouzenko has described to us the extreme secrecy in which the espionage operations were conducted here. He lived with his familyat 511 Somerset Street, Ottawa, but he had his own office in the secret cipher department which is located on the second floor at the Embassy, No. 285 Charlotte Streeet. He worked in room 12, one of the eight rooms on the second floor of a wing of the building, the entrance of which is closed by a double steel door, and the windows of which have iron bars and steel shutters which are closed at night for the purpose of complete secrecy. In this room is a steel safe which contains many of the important documents of the Military Intelligence. The cipher books which Gouzenko used to cipher and decipher telegrams, were kept in a sealed bag which was handed every night to one Aleksashkin, and in the same bag were also placed the telegrams that came from Moscow and the telegrams sent to Moscow. In the safe were kept the agents' records, Colonel Zabotin's secret diary, and other documents of the Military Intelligence Service. From time to time, some of these documents were destroyed in an incinerator located in room 14.


Report of the Royal Commission
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"The Report of the Royal Commission" (733 pages) - 27 juin 1946. Edition standard avec couverture souple bleue.
`Report of the Royal Commission on Espionage
    - Australia
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"The Report of the Royal Commission on Espionage - Australia" (733 pages) - 22 August, 1955.
Edition standard avec couverture souple bleue. Voici un passage avec référence à Igor Gouzenko dans le Chapitre 3 (pages 24-25) (en anglais):

#64. As to the charge of embezzlement made in the Soviet Note, the Department of External Affairs requested detailed particulars of fit, but none were supplied. This charge was not renewed by anyone before us; Petrov vehemently denied it and there was no evidence whatever to support it. It is noteworthy that a similarly belated and false charge of embezzlement of Embassy funds was made by the Soviet Government against Gouzenko after his defection in Canada in 1945 (Report of the Royal Commission on Espionage in Canada, at pages 645-646).

The Mackenzie King Record - Volume III
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"The Mackenzie King Record - Volume III (1945-1946)" (424 pages) - 1970.
Ecrit par J.W. Pickersgill et D.F. Forster, ce livre fut publié par l'University of Toronto Press. A l'intérieur de la jaquette, nous retrouvons le texte suivant (en anglais):

Volume III begins after the war has ended, and begins dramatically with a long account of the Gouzenko case. Its implications were felt in many areas, one of them being international relations in the difficult months after the end of the hostilities when the western allies were endeavouring to find ways of working with the USSR to form peace treaties and organize the United Nations. The awesome shadow of the atomic bomb is cast over most of the many discussions which the Prime Minister and his advisers have with the United States: Atlee, Churchill (the famous Fulton address is reported fully), Eden, Lord Addison, Bevin, Truman, Acheson.

Chapitre 2 intitulé "The Gouzenko Affair" contient 40 pages. Nous notons des pages 7-8 (en anglais):

Parliament was to meet at 11:00 A.M. on September 6 so that the House of Commons could elect a speaker before the formal opening that afternoon. When the Prime Minister arrived at his office about 10:45 A.M. he was surprised to find Robertson and Wrong waiting for him. In his special secret diary he noted that both were looking very serious. "Robertson said to me that a most terrible thing had happened. It was like a bomb on top of everything and one could not say how serious it might be or to what it might lead. He then told me that this morning, just half an hour or so earlier, a man had turned up, with his wife, at the office of the Minister of Justice. He asked to see the Minister. He said he was from the Russian Embassy. That he was threatened with deportation and that once he was deported, that would mean certain death. That the Russian democracy was different than ours.

"He went on to say that he had in in his possession documents that he had taken from the Embassy and was prepared to give to the Government. They would be seen to disclose that Russia had her spies and secret service people in Canada and in the U.S. and was practising a species of espionage. That some of these men were around Stettinius in the States, and that one was in our own Research Laboratories here (assumedly seeking to get secret information with regard to the atomic bomb). He indicated that he had had to do with the cyphering of messages. Robertson was not sure that he did not have the cypher code book with him. At any rate, he said that he had enough evidence there to prove that instead of being friends, the Russians were really enemies.

"The Secretary [in the office of the Minister of Justice] had talked with Mr. St Laurent who thought it best not to see him. Robertson and Wrong were asking my advice, whether they should not have the mounted police take him in hand and secure the documents which he had. The man when he was told that the Minister of Justice would not see him, then said that he would have to commit suicide right there. There could be no hope for him because when the vault was opened at the Embassy, they would discover there that the papers had gone and would know that he had taken them. I said to both Robertson and Wrong that I thought we should be extremely careful in becoming a party to any course of action which would link the Government of Canada up with this matter in a manner which might cause Russia to feel that we had performed an unfriendly act. That to seek to gather information in any underhand way would make clear that we did not trust the Embassy. The man might be only a crank trying to preserve his own life. if he had information of the kind in his possession during the war, he should have given it to us at that time, if he had wanted to help the Government. It looked as though he was trying to make out a case which would cause our Government to protect him which, of course, he admitted he wanted.

"Robertson seemed to feel that the information might be so important both to the States and to ourselves and to Britain that it would be in their interests for us to seize it no matter how it was obtained. He did not say this but asked my opinion. I was strongly against any step of the kind as certain to create an issue between Russia and Canada, this leading to severance of diplomatic relations and as Robertson pointed out, might have consequences on the meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers which might lead even to the breaking up of that organization."

The Gouzenko Transcripts
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"The Gouzenko Transcripts" (346 pages) - 27 juin 1982. Ecrit par Robert Bothwell et J.L Granatstein, ce livre fut publié par Deneau Publishers.
Camp X
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"Camp X - Canada's School for Secret Agents 1941-45" (327 pages) - 1986.
Ecrit par David Stafford et publié par Lester & Orpen Dennys Publishers. Voici trois paragraphes extraits de ce livre:

The Gouzenko case was the first important spy scandal of the postwar years and quickly gained status as a turning point in the emerging Cold War. As a result of Gouzenko's revelations several arrests were made in Canada. An atomic scientist, Alan Nunn May, was detained and then imprisoned in Britain, and in the United States investigations began that led ultimately to the executions of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg as Soviet spies in 1953.

In spite of the remarkable consequences of his act, Igor Gouzenko was a relatively insignificant figure. It was less what he knew than what he brought with him that was important, and even now, forty years later, reverberations of the Gouzenko affair are felt whenever allegations about the presence of Soviet moles in the West are raised. He was a twenty-six-year-old cipher clerk working for Soviet military intelligence (GRU) in the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa when, on the night of September 5, 1945 - less that a month after Hiroshima and Nagasaki - he left the embassy with documents revealing details of extensive espionage the USSR conducted against its wartime Allies. At first Gouzenko encountered great difficulty in interesting people in what he had to offer, and he was turned away from both newspaper and government offices. The events surrounding his defection, and the subsequent trials in Canada and elsewhere, are now well known, but at the time, when Canadian officials realized the significance of his material, the case was kept from public knowledge for a combination of operational and political reasons. From September on, Gouzenko and his family were kept under close wraps, under the protection of the RCMP. For cover purposes, those involved in the case were told that he had been taken "up north". In fact the exact opposite was true. For most of the time the Gouzenko family were well to the south, hidden away at Camp X. The reason lay in Stephenson's direct involvement in the whole affair.

By an accident of timing, which in retrospect must have appeared miraculous to those involved, Stephenson was on a routine visit to Ottawa the night Gouzenko spent wandering around looking in vain for asylum. From the exclusive Seigniory Club in Montebello, Stephenson phoned Norman Robertson, the under-secretary at External Affairs, to invite him for a drink. Instead within hours he found himself closeted with Robertson and Tommy Stone while the "Man of Influence" poured out his troubles and sought his advice. The problem, as always, lay the Canadian prime minister. Exhibiting his customary distaste for spying and undercover work, King had said tha he did not want Canada to get involved with Gouzenko at all. So far as he was concerned, he had told Robertson, they should let Gouzenko wander aroudn until he either went back to his embassy or committed suicide. "If suicide took place", King confided to his diary, "let the city police take charge and secure whatever there was in the way of documents, but on no account for us to take the initiative. If Canada got involved officially, it could only mean a further deterioration of relations with the Russians.

Stephenson vigorously opposed King's view. ...


The Dangerous World of Spies and Spying
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"The Dangerous World of Spies and Spying" (274 pages) - 1967.
Ecrit par Robert Liston et publié par Platt and Munk Publishers. Nous offrons le passage suivant du chapitre 12 intitulé "Spies who `go over'" (en anglais):

One defector is worth a dozen average spies. Hayhanen, a paid, highly trained Soviet agent in a sensitive plot, defected to the United States and told enough to lead to the capture of Rudolf Abel, a top Russian spy of the 1950's. he illustrated how one defector can reveal in a minute information that would require years to learn by customary intelligence methods. He can expose organizations, unmask fellow spies, identify leaders, describe secret operations, break codes, tell about dead drops and safe addresses. One defector can create havoc in a complex spy apparatus.

...

The postwar round of defections really started in September 1945, when Igor Gouzenko, a cipher clerk in the Soviet Embassy at Ottawa, scooped up an armful of secret documents and tried to defect. Stalin was then the head of the Russian government, and the instruments of his power were terror, liquidation, Siberia and purges - all conducted by the secret police. Gouzenko felt that he, his wife and his child were not safe in Russia. Life in the West looked better.

But having made the decision to defect, Gouzenko had a hard time carrying it out. In one horrible night and part of the next day he made rounds of Canadian ministries, police stations and newspaper offices. No one believed him. Dejected and defeated, he returned to his apartment aware he was as good as dead. The Canadians might not believe he wanted to defect, but the Russians would.

Gouzenko asked neighbors to care for his child in the even "anything happened" to his wife and himself. The neighbors were generous and insisted on sheltering the whole family. But the news leaked out, and a quartet of Soviet Embassy officials literally broken down the door the apartment and tried to carry off the Russian code clerk and his family. Fortunately, the Canadian police were called, and now they had reason to believe Gouzenko. He was granted asylum.

The papers Gouzenko brought with him were the first real evidence of a massive Soviet intelligence system in North America. Even as Russia joined forces with the United States, Britain and Canada in World War II, it was spending great sums to steal information and undermine the Allied governments. Gouzenko's information made America aware of the Russian spy menace, and the creation of the CIA and other means of combating it were a direct result of Gouzenko's defection. Perhaps an even more immediate effect was the beginning of the end for the Russian atomic spy rings in the United States.


Spies - The Secret 
    Agents Who Changed the Course of History
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"Spies - The Secret Agents Who Changed the Course of History" (288 pages) - 1994.
Ecrit par Ernest Volkman et publié par Wiley. Ce livre inclut une section intitulée "Igor Gouzenko: The First Man" d'à peu près 10 pages Voici les premiers mots (en anglais):

"Igor Gouzenko - The First Man" Code Names: Corby, Klark / Alias: Richard Brown / 1919-1982.

The 26-year-old Russian, newly arrived in Canada, had never seen anything like it. He cut the small story out of the local Ottawa newspaper and showed the clipping to all his co-workers. Was this not, he asked them, the most incredible thing they had seen?

The story, reporting a routine enough occurence in the city of Ottawa, concerned a Greek fruit merchant who was suing the city for constructing a road in such a way that it was destroying his business. Igor Gouzenko read the story repeatedly, and the more he read, the more astonished he became. For a faithful Soviet apparatchik, the idea that an ordinary citizen could actually sue the government was almost beyond belief.

The fruit merchant episode was the first of several lessons on life in the West that caused a profound change in Gouzenko. The contrast between the standard of living of the average citizen in Canada and the grim, grinding poverty of a Soviet citizen could not have been greater. And as Gouzenko saw more aspects of life in the West, he became steadily more disillusioned about the Soviet system.


The Games of Intelligence
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"Games of Intelligence - The Classified Conflict of International Espionage" (248 pages) - 1989.
Ecrit par Nigel West et publié par Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Voici un extrait (en anglais):

"The single individual who did more to alert the West to the Soviet post-war espionage threat was, ironically, a member of the GRU. Igor Gouzenko defected from the Soviet embassy in Ottawa in September 1945, bringing with him a stack of 109 documents purloined from his coderoom. Gouzenko's haul revealed some of the operations of a sophisticated GRU network based in Canada, with links further afield, but he was unable to shed much light on another group active in the same field known as the Smezhniki, or `the Neigbours'. Gouzenko's office was in a special suite of eight offices on the second floor of the embassy, at 285 Charlotte Street, and extraordinary precautions had been taken to seal off this particular wing from the rest of the building. A pair of huge steel doors guarded the entrance, and none of the GRU personnel was permitted to trespass into the NKVD's special rooms which were barred and shuttered. The Neighbours even boasted their own separate cipher arrangements and an incinerator to destroy secret communications.

The GRU's parallel organization was the NKVD, headed in Ottawa by Vitali G. Pavlov, whose official status was a diplomat with the rank of a second secretary. Although Gouzenko could testify to the integrity of the security precautions taken by the Neighbours, he was unable to expose the organization's operations. Nevertheless, he did shed considerable light on the GRU's activities, and a number of networks were rolled up by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's Special Branch and Britain's Security Service in consequence, including twenty Canadian Communists, of whom eleven were imprisoned. Similarly, Kirril M. Alexeev, the commercial attaché in Mexico who defected the following year, was able to identify Lev A. Tarasov as the local NKVD
Rezident, but could not do much more in terms of naming individual agents."

A Century of Spies
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"A Century of Spies - Intelligence in the Twentieth Century" (534 pages) - 1995.
Ecrit par Jeffrey T. Richelson et publié par Oxford. Voici un extrait (en anglais):

VENONA

"It was not long after the UKUSA agreement was signed that the American and British codebreakers were able to jointly exploit Soviet communications that had been intercepted in 1944 and 1945. The ability to break into those communications was one of several postwar events that resulted in significant setbacks to Soviet intelligence operations.

On September 5, 1945, Igor Gouzenko, a GRU code clerk at the Soviet embassy in Ottawa, stuffed more than 100 documents under his shirt - including pages from the diary of the GRU resident. Gouzenko succeeded in defecting and obtaining protection from Canadian authorities, although not easily.

When the police began translating Gouzenko's documents and interviewing him they discovered a major Soviet espionage effort in Canada - an effort which penetrated the Department of External Affairs cipher room, the Royal Canadian Air Force intelligence department, Parliament, the National Research Council, the Department of Munitions and Supply, and, in the person of Allan Nunn May, Canada's atomic research laboratories. The Soviets had acquired engineering blueprints of weapons, as well as samples of enriched uranium-535.

Gouzenko's documents and debriefings also revealed intelligence on Soviet cipher systems, evidence of espionage by Alger Hiss and U.S. Treasury official Harry Dexter White, and the existence of a Soviet spy in British intelligence code-named ELLI."


Canada's Enemies
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"Canada's Enemies - Spies and Spying in the Peaceful Kingdom" (158 pages) - 1993.
Ecrit par Graeme S. Mount et publié par Dundurn. Voici un extrait (en anglais):

"... When Soviet cipher clerk Igor Gouzenko defected from his legation in September 1945 with extensive documentation on an international spy ring, the Canadian government did not know what to do and to seek advice from the British and Americans. ... Were there other spies to replace those exposed and arrested in the aftermath of the Gouzenko disclosures, or did Gouzenko place roadblocks at the end of many trails? ..."

Aventuriers de l'histoire - les espions
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"Aventuriers de l'histoire - les espions" (315 pages) - 1973.
Ecrit par Roger Gheysens et publié par Elsevier. Voici des extraits:

"Le vaste réseau soviétique de vols de secrets atomiques qui se développa en Amérique du Nord au cours de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et découvert en mai 1945 grâce à la défection d'Igor Gouzenko, était dirigé, du Canada, par le colonel Nikolaï Zabotine, attaché militaire à Ottawa. Depuis mai 1943, le savant anglais Allan Nunn May, physicien nucléaire, transmettait ses informations directement au lieutenant Angelov, adjoint du colonel Zabotine, à qui il fit également parvenir en juillet 1945 de microscopiques échantillons d'uranium, U 235 et U 233, soustraits au laboratoire où il travaillait.

...

Après sa défection à Ottawa, le 5 septembre 1945, Igor Gouzenko avait également déclaré qu'il était écoeuré de voir l'Union Soviétique se livrer à un effort massif d'espionnage au détriment de ses alliés, l'Angleterre, le Canada et les Etats-Unis.

...

L'un des premiers transfuges d'après la Seconde Guerre mondiale fut Igor Gouzenko, employé au Chiffre de l'ambassade soviétique à Ottawa. Arrivé en 1943 au Canada, à l'âge de vingt-quatre ans, avc sa femme et son bébé, Gouzenko est séduit par la vie nouvelle qu'il y découvre et décide le 5 septembre 1945 de « choisir la liberté ». A ce moment, Ottawa est devenue le « point central » où sont rassemblées les plus importantes informations sur les activités des espions soviétiques. Les cryptanalistes du F.B.I. et de la C.I.A. surveillent de très près, en effet, l'ambassade soviétique de Washington et le sécrétariat de l'O.N.U. Pour rallier l'Ouest, Gouzenko vole des documents dans les chambres fortes de son ambassade et se présente dans plusieurs grands journaux d'Ottawa ... où personne ne veut croire sa rocambolesque histoire! Insuccès aussi au ministère de la Justice, puis au ministère des Affaires étrangères où on lui conseille ... de rejoindre son ambassade! Désappointé et déconcerté, Gouzenko rejoint son domicile. Mais, à l'ambassade, on a constaté la disparition des dossiers et Gouzenko voit arriver chez lui des agents soviétiques. Affolé, il se réfugie chez un voisin de palier avec sa femme et son enfant. Ce voisin, moins incrédule que les journalistes, prévient la police canadienne: celle-ci surprend, la même nuit, des membres de l'embassade soviétique qui, après avoir fracturé la porte de l'appartement de Gouzenko, mettent les lieux à sac dans l'espoir de recouvrer les dossiers secrets. Cette fois, les autorités canadiennes sont bien oubligées de croire Gouzenko, elles lui accordent le droit d'asile et le mettent au secret, avec ses documents. On se demande quelle a dû être la réaction des journalistes d'Ottawa quand ils apprirent combien ils étaient passés « à côté de la montre en or »! Dans les dossiers, contenant plus de cent documents, livrés par Gouzenko, figurait entre autres tout l'organigramme de l'espionnage soviétique en Amérique du Nord, réseau fonctionnant depuis 1942, date de l'ouverture des relations diplomatiques entre l'U.R.S.S. et le Canada et permettant la transmission à Moscou d'importants secrets militaires. Le F.B.I. eut tôt fait de remonter les filières. A plus ou moins long terme, la défection de Gouzenko permit l'arrestation en 1946 du savant atomiste anglais, le Dr Alan Nunn May, et celle en 1950 du Dr Klaus Fuchs, grand responsable de la « fuite atomique », celle aussi de Harry Gold, un des principaux courriers du réseau, de David Greenglass, et enfin la capture des époux Julius et Ethel Rosenberg qui seront exécutés le 19 juin 1953. Car les Américains avaient réagi brutalement aux révélations de Gouzenko et, le 1er août 1946, le Congrès avait voté la loi MacMahon entourant d'un secret absolu toutes les fabrications militaires, toute rupture de ce secret pouvant entraîner la peine de mort."


Espionage - Fascinating Stories of Spies and Spying
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Source: Collection personnelle
"Espionage - Fascinating Stories of Spies and Spying" (176 pages) - 2006.
Ecrit par David Owen et publié par Reader's Digest. Voici un extrait (en anglais):

"Meanwhile, Russian agent Igor Gouzenko, who defected in Ottawa in September 1945, identified a British scientist inside the atomic bomb program as a former member of the Communist party and a Soviet spy. Dr. Alan Nunn May had worked in Montreal, and Gouzenko knew the scientist had sent the Russians small samples of the uranium used for the bombs. He had returned to his work in Britain, but the Canadians informed the British of his treachery, and he was promptly arrested. He claimed at his trial that when he passed the information along, Russia had been allied with Britain and the United States, and that he was acting for the overall safety of mankind, but the court refused to accept his defense. He was given a ten-year jail term.

This was the tip of the iceberg. Gouzenko knew there were more Soviet spies with access to the secrets of the atomic bomb project, but they appeared in his records only as code names. The code was eventually cracked when Soviet diplomatic radio signals were deciphered under the Venona program."


A History of the Russian Secret Service
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"A History of the Russian Secret Service" (568 pages) - 1972. Ecrit par Richard Deacon et publié par Taplinger. Voici quelques extraits (en anglais):

"Enough damage had already been done to enable Russia to get back into the race for atomic supremacy, and the effects might have been even worse but for the surprise defection of Igor Gouzenko, a cipher clerk in the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa.

The story of Gouzenko is well enough known, but it provides an example of the gravest danger which must always confront Russian Intelligence as long as the Soviet Union remains a totalitarian, police state. A trusted servant of the Soviet state is sent abroad, he contrasts the freedom and luxuries of the democracies with life at home and he suddenly wishes to opt out of the horrors of Communist tyranny. So it was with Gouzenko. But he knew, as others since him have learned, that would not be given adequate protection against Soviet revenge unless he came across with worthwhile information. Gouzenko did just that: he went to the Canadian Mounted Police and handed over documents which showed beyond question the extent of Soviet espionage in Canada. The Russians indignantly insisted that Gouzenko was a thief who had stolen documents and money from the Soviet Embassy and demanded that he be handed back to them. The Canadian authorities refused, though at one time there was a real risk that they did not realise the seriousness of the situation and Gouzenko was nearly returned to his embassy."


Famous Soviet Spies
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"Famous Soviet Spies - The Kremlin's Secret Weapon" (223 pages) - 1973.
Livre de la U.S. News and World Report avec Joseph Newman comme rédacteur en chef. Le chapitre 3 est intitulé "Igor Gouzenko - The Spy They Wouldn't Listen To". Voici quelques paragraphes (en anglais):

The exposure of these spy rings - three in the United States, several in Great Britain, and one in Canada - came not only through the efforts of Allied Counterintelligence and the FBI after 1946, but also through the revelations of one man - Igor Gouzenko. He was, until his defection, a Soviet spy.

Having had the opportunity to compare the Soviet Union with the West, Gouzenko made his choice. He did so at the risk of his life.

In the dusk of the unseasonably hot September evening, Igor Gouzenko made his solitary way from his residence at 511 Somerset Street toward his place of business on Range Road in the city of Ottawa, Canada. He had gone through the motions of eating an early dinner. Then had said good-by to Anna, his wife, and Andrei, his two-year old son. he did not know whether he would be returning to them, and if he did, into what kind of peril he might be plunging them. He knew only that he had crossed his Rubicon. Anna, from whom he drew strength, supported his decision. She was nearly six months pregnant, and he must act now while was stil able to move with reasonable speed.

Ostensibly, Gouzenko worked in Canada as a secretary and interpreter attached to Colonel Nikolai Zabotin, the military attaché at the Soviet Embassy. Actually, however, he was one of a number of such officers at the embassy whose identity and purpose was concealed under the cover of a diplomatic cloak. Gouzenko's real job was to encode and decode secret messages sent to and from the Moscow Center; he was a cipher clerk. A lieutenant in the GRU, he served as a member of an extremely successful spy ring, directed by Colonel Zabotin.

Gouzenko's faithful decision had been formulated a year ago on another September night when, after wandering the streets in the rain, he had returned home to tell his wife that word had arrived from Moscow for his recall. For the first time since their arrival in Canada, they had blurted out their mutual feelings. They wanted to stay! They wanted a new life in a free land for Andrei and themselves. To go back to what they had left was unthinkable. But how could they remain?

At that time, in order to delay his recall, Gouzenko had suggested to Colonel Zabotin that because of his skill in English, he might continue to be of service, Surprisingly, Moscow had agreed, and during the twelve-month reprieve, Gouzenko had wrestled with the problem of devising a course of action that could make his stay permanent. This had been no easy thing to do, for life within the closed embassy community was a constant exercise in poker playing in which everyone watched everyone else.

The Secret Police agent in the embassy was Vitali Pavlov, the second secretary. He was also the NKVD chief for Canada. Pavlov ran his own spy ring, staffed by embassy personnel. The NKVD cipher clerk, Farafontov, was listed as an embassy chauffeur. To Gouzenko's knowledge, nineteen members of the embassy staff were agents either of the GRU or the NKVD. Their primary mission was to steal all secrets of military, political, and economic significance that they could lay their hands on and transmit them to Moscow.


Maclean's 1953
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Source: Collection personnelle
"Maclean's Magazine" - Septembre 1953.
Un article couvrant une entrevue avec Igor Gouzenko. Avec sous-titre (en anglais) "Blair Fraser keeps a rendez-vous with Igor Gouzenko - Maclean's Ottawa editor meets the Russian Embassy clerk who broke a spy ring and has since hidden out under assumed names that only the RCMP knows. While keeping one jump ahead of Kremlin vengance he has written a novel that may bolster his sagging fortunes".

Au bas de la première page (cliquez page 9 ci-dessous), nous pouvons lire (en anglais): "One reward to Gouzenko for revealing the atom-bomb spy ring was Canadian citizen No 36,000. At right: first pictures of Gouzenko's secret hobby - a portrait of Inspector Herbert Spanton and a water color of an ornate Russian building."

Voici les autres pages de l'article (en anglais):

New World Magazine
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"New World Magazine" - Mai 1947.
Un article assez intéressant sur l'espionnage communiste au Canada suivant l'affaire Gouzenko. Sur la couverture, on nous présente les sujets suivants (en anglais):
  • How many Communist spy rings are there in Canada today?
  • Who is the new head of Canada's Communist spy ring?
  • Who pays for Soviet spy rings in Canada today?
  • Is Canadian Community Party financed by Moscow?
  • Igor Gouzenko's sensational exposé - an exclusive New World interview
Une question importante posée à Igor Gouzenko par le magazine est la suivante (en anglais): Should Canada fortify the Arctic as a safety measure?

Answer by Igor Gouzenko: Yes. From 1929 the Soviet Government has energetically studied and fortified the Soviet Arctic. It has created on the Arctic Ocean big population centres. Some of them such as Igarka, Nordvik, Anadyr, Magadam, reach the size of big cities with populations up to 500,000 and even 1,000,000 inhabitants who are mostly political prisoners. Russia has built barracks, airfields, ports and weather stations in the Arctic, using political prisoners living in concentration camps to do the work.

Under the conditions of tension in the international situation, Canada's desire to fortify the Arctic in co-operation with the United States is fully justified.


Voici des scans de certaines pages de l'article incluant des photos de matériel soviétique retiré par Igor Gouzenko lors de sa défection (avec sommaires descriptifs en anglais):

Saturday Review 1954
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"Saturday Review" (Article on "Fall of a Titan") - July 17, 1954.
Article du magazine Saturday Review avec l'annonce du livre d'Igor Gouzenko intitulé "The Fall of a Titan". La couverture de cette édition démontre une photo dans laquelle il y a l'extrait (en anglais)" the manacled hands symbolize the bleak enslavement of honor and culture behind the Iron Curtain, the theme of Igor Gouzenko's new panoramic novel, "The Fall of a Titan". Voici un scan de la page (10) avec le début de l'article. Il y a aussi un passage concernant l'auteur Igor Gouzenko écrit par Bernard Kale (en anglais):

The Author

Igor Gouzenko began his career as a front-page disgrace to the Kremlin in September 1945, only a month after Hiroshima. Gouzenko, a twenty-six-year-old graduate of Moscow's Military Intelligence School, had spent two years as a code clerk in the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa when he decided to walk out on the USSR with 109 documents stuffed under his shirt. Unwrapped, these reports and memorandums represented the first pieces of evidence of a Soviet atom spy ring in North America. They disclosed that Dr. Allan Nunn May, a physicist whose subsequent conviction led to Fuchs and the Rosenbergs, had tipped off the Russians about our A-bomb experiments and had even passed along a sample or two of uranium. As for Gouzenko, he, his wife and their two children were promptly absorbed into Canada's day-to-day life under assumed names (his boy and girl don't even know they are little Gouzenkos). Someone from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is always within shouting distance, just in case. In his disguise, as just another Iron Curtain refugee, Gouzenko became a writer and, "somewhere in Canada" the other day, he discussed how he'd gone from dabbling in short stories in his youth to "The Fall of a Titan". "When I was a pupil in Russia I wrote good compositions," he began proudly. "one about a boy becoming a famous violinist was particularly praised by my teachers. I was then in the fifth grade, about eleven years old." His memoirs, "The Iron Curtain", followed in 1948 when he was about twenty-nine. He spent four years on "The Titan" - one looking for a subject, three in the writing. It was turned down by a half-dozen American publishers before Norton accepted it last fall, unaware that Igor Gouzenko was the Igor Gouzenko. Not long afterwards the Jenner Committee went to Canada to discuss the espionage business with Gouzenko, and his picture appeared in the front pages. His head was in a hood.

Spy Wars
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"Spy Wars - Espionage and Canada from Gouzenko to Glasnost" (276 pages) - 1990.
Ecrit par J.L. Granatstein et David Stafford. Chapitre 3 est intitulé (en anglais): "The Man who Started the Cold War".

The Beaver
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"Igor Gouzenko and Canada's Cold War" (Article de 5 pages) - Edition d'octobre/novembre 1995 de la revue "The Beaver".
Article écrit par Laurence Hannant. Voici le premier paragraphe (en anglais):

Fifty years ago Canada was thrown into the menacing shadows of international espionage when a cipher clerk in the Soviet embassy in Ottawa stuffed 109 documents into his shirt and fled into a humid late summer night seeking asylum. With the defection of Igor Gouzenko the Cold War was born, less than a month after the close of the Second World War.

Voici des photos des pages respective de l'article:

Report of the Royal Commission
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"The Soviet Spies - The Story of Russian Espionage in North America" (164 pages) - 1948.
Ecrit par Richard Hirsch et publié par Nicholas Kaye. Voici une photo de la page titre. De l'avant-propos, nous avons le texte suivant (en anglais):

"It was Igor Sergeievitch Gouzenko who revealed the existence of a widespread conspiracy to obtain secret official information respecting the military potential of Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and to convey such information to the government of the U.S.S.R. At eight o'clock on the evening of September 5, 1945, he left the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa with one hundred documents belonging to the officially accredited Soviet diplomatic representatives. In so doing, he betrayed his government, his superiors, and his oath of office. As wards of the Canadian government, Gouzenko and his family are being accorded the close protection of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Gouzenko made possible the exposure of various persons who were enraged in betraying their oaths of office, their superiors, and the governments of Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. From the long-range viewpoint the significance of these multiple betrayals lies in the fact that they were from Communism to Democracy and from Democracy to Communism. Such actions establish a pattern which in the future may take place with increasing frequency. A unique reflection on sociological forces at work in the world todayis the ease with which Soviet representatives were able to persuade the self-admitted Communists and secret adherents of the Communist Party to sell out their country."


Movie - The Iron Curtain
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Manuscrit pour le film "The Iron Curtain" - Novembre 1947.
Manuscrit pour l'enregistrement préliminaire du film "The Iron Curtain" daté le 18 novembre 1947. La production finale par 20th Century Fox fut livrée en 1948.

Gay Canadian Rogues
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Livre "Gay Canadian Rogues - Swindlers, Gold-diggers and Spies" écrit par Frank Rasky - 1958.
Les deux chapitres suivants couvrent Igor Gouzenko (en anglais):

Man to Man - Stag Magazine
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Magazine "Man to Man - The Stag Magazine" Edition août/septembre - 1951.
Cette publication contient un article intitulé "How We Caught the Atom Spies" par Edward R. Thompson (Agent Spécial, GRC) "tel que raconté à Kurt Singer". L'article se trouve sur les pages 22-23 et 46-47. Voici un scan/photo de la première page de l'article qui inclut une photo du film "The Iron Curtain" mettant en vedette Dana Andrews et Gene Tierney. Voici un extrait de cet article:

...

It was September 1945 and still quite warm in Ottawa. All at once we in the political division of the police department were suddenly informed that a Russian code clerk had stolen a number of secret Soviet documents from the Russian Embassy in Ottawa and wanted to sell them to the newspapers.

It also appeared that he had tried to see the Minister of Justice, but nobody in that department had dreamed that his documents might prove the existence of a dangerous spy ring.

Now we, the special agents of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, were being given top secret orders and warned that for some time to come we would not see our wives.

We had to leave our offices in Ottawa and Montreal and report at Rockliffe Barracks. We did not know much about the undertaking assigned to us, but we were aware from the start of a great air of excitement surrounding it, and excitement that infected Prime Minister William Lym McKenzie King, army officers, representatives of the Department of Justice, and of course, our own Inspector John Leopold, head of the anti-espionage squad.

The cause of all this excitement was 25-year old Igor Gouzenko, a code clerk who insisted with deadly seriousness that he would be killed by the NKVD (the secret Communist terror organization) if they could get their hands on him.

The police had been instructed to look after his safety, and two of our very able agents had been following Gouzenko and his attractive wife and little baby.

At this point the Russians did not know that the Gouzenko case was in our hands, nor did Prime Minister McKenzie King until a little later.

McKenzie King, in fact, had asked his secretary to give a message to Gouzenko not to make trouble between Canada and the Soviet Union and to return all the papers he had taken to the Russian Embassy.

The members of the Government had to weigh certain possibilities. Gouzenko might mentally unbalanced. He might be a crank. He might even be an agent provocateur.

We special agents quickly knew better. We learned that the Soviet Embassy was calling for special action, and soon afterwards Soviet agents raided Gouzenko's home at 511 Somerset Street, Ottawa.

...

What we had to start with were hundreds of documents in Russian. First of all, we got an expert Russian translator, a person we could trust, to translate these documents.

They were full of technical terms, so we had to turn to scientists to explain to us the terms. Even then they were hard to understand.

Meanwhile, Inspector Leopold was begging us to hurry our investigation, for it was Leopold's duty to brief Prime Minister McKenzie King on what was being turned up, and the Prime Minister in turn was informing the Canadian Government, the Government of Britain, and the United States Government.

Finally, after much sifting of the documents and after interrogating Gouzenko day and night, we concluded that a Russian-Canadian-Communist spy ring with ramifications in the United States had been able to obtain information on matters that were most vital to the Western Hemisphere. In tabular form, these matters were:

  1. details of atomic bomb production
  2. samples of Uranium U-233 and U-235
  3. data and patent information from the National Research Council in Canada
  4. data on United States troop movements
  5. details on V-bomb production
  6. electric fuses for shells (covered by new patents)
  7. data on the new super-explosive RDX
When I saw this tabulation and the English version of the documents together with an explanation of their contents, I whistled. I knew then that this was the biggest spy case in the history of Canada.

And I knew that months if not years of hard work lay ahead for rounding up the Soviet gang engaged in a global hunt for atomic secrets.

At last I came on one tiny hint. It was a coded cable that read:
"Badeau asks for permission to change to work on Uranium."

That was my first slight clue. Who was Badeau? And where was he?

I was trying to guess and wondering about pumping Gouzenko when Inspector Leopold gave me these instructions:
"Concentrate on one man only. One man alone: Alek. Alek is probably not in Canada. Comb the earth for him but find Alek. Read again all the Gouzenko documents. It is Alek I want."

...


Movie - The Iron Curtain
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Source: Collection personnelle
Film "The Iron Curtain" (VHS B/W) qui parut originalement en 1948.
Produit par 20th Century Fox en 1948. Dana Andrews et Gene Tierney en vedette. Le scénario (en anglais): "based on the personal story of Igor Gouzenko former code clerk U.S.S.R. Embassy in Ottawa, Canada."

Voici des photos (blanc et noir) d'affiche publicitaires sur ce film dans ma collection:

Screenland Magazine
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Source: Collection personnelle
"Screenland Magazine" - Juin 1948.
Un article assez intéressant sur le film "The Iron Curtain". Voici les sujets principaux (en anglais):

The Iron Curtain - Movie Program
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Source: Collection personnelle
"The Iron Curtain" - Livret publicité - 1948.
Petit livret (écrit en hollandais) mettant en vedette Dana Andrews sur la couverture ainsi que la silhouette de la colline parlementaire canadienne à Ottawa.

Operation Manhunt
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Source: Collection personnelle
"Operation Manhunt" (78 minutes DVD) - Long-métrage en 1954.
Produit en 1954 par United Artists. Le sous-titre contient le passage (en anglais):

"This movie is the authentic, documented story of Igor Gouzenko, the former Russian code clerk whose sensational revelations smashed a giant Soviet espionage ring. Gouzenko, Target Number One on the Soviet Secret Service list, was forced to live in hiding, but secretly appeared in this feature film wearing a hood."

Voici des photos des affiches-publicité du film "Operation Manhunt" de ma collection:
The Clouded Dawn
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Source: Collection personnelle
"The Clouded Dawn" (24 minutes vidéo VHS) - 1962.
Vidéo produit par le National Film Board au Canada. Sa description donnent les détails suivants (en anglais):

"Japan surrenders, World War II is over, but the scars are deep. Canadian prisoners are released from Japanese war camps. In Canada as elsewhere, the monumental task of rehabilitation begins. In Ottawa, the Gouzenko case shocks the nation. The trials of Nuremberg begin. The United Nations is formed. Canada, now a much stronger independent nation, enters the Cold War."

In Darkest Ottawa
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Source: Collection personnelle
"In Darkest Ottawa" (49 pages)- 1954.
Ecrit par Charles L. Fillmore et publié par Rose, Cowan et Latta. Du texte des premiers paragraphes (en anglais):

"In September 1945, one Gouzenko, employed in the Russian Embassy at Ottawa, determined he would not return to Russia though under orders from Moscow to do so. He wished to remain in Canada. On the 5th of September of that year he left the Embassy, taking with him his wife and child and certain documents to disclose to important Canadian authorities the work that was being carried on in Canada by Russian representatives. That work included the obtaining of material relating to the atom bomb, false passports, and most every secret Canada would not wish to part with, whether it benefited Russia or not.

The night was spent by Gouzenko and his family in dodging strong-arm Russians. That night was drama, but could have been tragedy. The Canadian police took charge and Gouzenko and his family were saved.

Consternation seized the Canadian authorities. The balance wheel at Ottawa flew to pieces, and what followed has seldom been equalled in fiction."


The Communist Threat to Canada
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Livret "The Communist Threat to Canada" - 1947.
Livret produit par la Chambre de Commerce. On y trouve quelques passage concernant Igor Gouzenko (en anglais):

"Igor Gouzenko was the cipher clerk of the Soviet Embassy at Ottawa, who in September, 1945, left the Embassy with certain documents which, combined with his testimony, proved invaluable to the Royal Commission on Espionage.

In his statement on October 10th, 1945, Gouzenko said:

The announcement of the dissolution of the Comintern was probably the greatest farce of the Communists in recent years. Only the name was liquidated, with the object of reassuring public opinion in the democratic countries. Actually the Comintern exists and continues its work ....

The documents which Gouzenko brought with him corroborate this testimony.

The importance of the Report of the Royal Commission cannot be overestimated. Despite the attempts which are still being made to discredit Gouzenko and his testimony it must be remembered that no attempt has been made to dispute the authenticity of the supporting documents which he produced as evidence."


Soviet Embassy in Ottawa
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Carte postale avec photo de l'ambassade soviétique sur la rue Charlotte à Ottawa - vers le début des années 1950. Photo de l'ambassade soviétique sur la rue Charlotte à Ottawa avant qu'elle soit rasée par le feu le 1er janvier 1956.


Prière de prendre contact avec Richard en lui envoyant un email à spytools@sympatico.ca si vous avez des questions ou suggestions.

Le contenu (photos et textes) qui est présenté sur le site www.campx.ca et ses pages sont strictement pour affichage par votre navigateur web pour fins éducationnelles et de jouissance lors de votre visite du site. Il est permis de créer des liens aux pages sous www.campx.ca si et seulement si vous y ajouter une mention claire et précise de la source. Il est interdit de copier texte ou photos retrouvés sur www.campx.ca et ses sous-pages à moins d'avoir la permission ou consentement de l'auteur Richard Brisson qui peut être rejoint par l'entremise de son courriel spytools@sympatico.ca avec toutes questions.



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